She elaborated on research studies that ture effective lady era 100 mg womens health group lafayette co, response pattern 100 mg lady era fast delivery breast cancer 49ers gear, organ strength or weakness, extend our understanding of the following aspects ego structure, and commonalities (Neuman, 1995). She suggested Five Client Variables that spiritual needs include (1) the need for mean- Neuman has identiﬁed ﬁve variables that are con- ing and purpose in life; (2) the need to receive love tained in all client systems: physiological, psycho- and give love; (3) the need for hope and creativity; logical, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual. The second concept identiﬁed by Neuman is the Psychological refers to mental processes and rela- environment. Developmental refers to life-developmental Neuman has identiﬁed and deﬁned the following processes. Neuman elaborated on the spiritual variable in External environment—inter- and extrapersonal in order to assist readers in understanding that the nature. Examples of trates all other client system variables and supports intrapersonal forces are presented for each variable. The client-client sys- tem can have a complete unawareness of the Physiological variable—degree of mobility, range of spiritual variable’s presence and potential, deny its body function. These factors include the relationships and resources Health is the third concept in Neuman’s model. Extrapersonal fac- Neuman believes that wellness and illness are on tors include education, ﬁnances, employment, and opposite ends of the continuum and that health is other resources (Neuman, 1995). Wellness Neuman (1995) has identiﬁed a third environ- exists when more energy is built and stored than ment as the “created environment. Neuman cluding the basic structure of energy factors toward views health as a manifestation of living energy system integration, stability, and integrity to create available to preserve and enhance system integrity. This safe, created environment Health is seen as varying levels within a normal offers a protective coping shield that helps the range, rising and falling throughout the life span. A major objective of the created These changes are in response to basic structure environment is to stimulate the client’s health. The created envi- Nursing is the fourth concept in Neuman’s model ronment supersedes or goes beyond the internal and is depicted in Figure 18–4.
Some studies exploring health beliefs have emphasized lay theories 100 mg lady era with amex womens health program, which present individuals as having complex views and theories about their health which inﬂuence their behaviour buy generic lady era 100mg online breast cancer risk calculator. This perspective regards individuals as less rational and examines lay theories in a relatively unstructured format using a qualitative approach. Other studies have taken a more quantitative approach and have explored constructs such as attributions, health locus of control, unrealistic optimism and stages of change. Psychologists have also developed structured models to integrate these diﬀerent beliefs and to predict health behaviours such as the health belief model, the protection motivation theory, the theory of planned behaviour and the health action process approach. These models consider individuals to be processors of information and vary in the extent to which they address the individual’s cognitions about their social world. The models can be used to pre- dict health behaviours quantitatively and have implications for developing methods to promote change. Many models of health beliefs assume that behaviour is a consequence of a series of rational stages that can be measured. For example, it is assumed that the individual weighs up the pros and cons of a behaviour, assesses the seriousness of a potentially dangerous illness and then decides how to act. Even though some of the social cognition models include past behaviour (as a measure of habit), they still assume some degree of rationality. The diﬀerent models compartmentalize diﬀerent cognitions (perceptions of severity, susceptibility, outcome expectancy, intentions) as if they are discrete and separate entities. However, this separation may only be an artefact of asking questions relating to these diﬀerent cognitions. In the same way that models assume that cognitions are separate from each other they also assume they exist independent of methodology. However, interview and questionnaire questions may actually create these cognitions. Models of health beliefs and health behaviours tend to examine an individual’s cognitions out of context. This context could either be the context of another individual or the wider social context.
Finally lady era 100 mg mastercard www.women health problems.com, drunk driving is a tremendous problem in the United States purchase lady era 100mg on-line womens health 012013 pl, as are violent crimes com- mitted by people who are under the influence of alcohol. Findings for alcohol expectancies among school-age Alienation children indicate increasingly positive alcohol expectan- The state of being emotionally separated from oth- cies across the grade levels. Feelings of alienation sometimes lead people to form small, close-knit groups such as cults. Entire groups may experi- ation may occur in response to certain events or situa- ence alienation—for example, ethnic minorities or resi- tions in society or in one’s personal life. Examples of dents of inner city neighborhoods who feel the opportu- events that may lead to an individual’s feeling of alien- nities and advantages of mainstream society are beyond ation include the loss of a charismatic group leader, or their reach. Examples of personal events person experiences alienation: sometimes the individual are a death in the family,ajob change, divorce, or leav- feels alienation as disharmony with his or her true self. Although most people may This condition develops when a person accepts societal find that such occurrences trigger temporary feelings of expectations (to take over a family business, for exam- disillusionment or loneliness, a small percentage will be ple) that are counter to the person’s true goals, feelings, unable to overcome these events, and will feel hopelessly or desires (perhaps to be a teacher). They attribute this alien- In the workplace, jobs have become increasingly ation to a variety of societal conditions: the rapid specialized since the 1700s and the Industrial Revolu- changes in society during this period, the increase in al- tion. Workers may see little connection between the tasks cohol and drug abuse, violence in the media, or the lack they perform and the final product or service, and may of communal values in the culture at large. Some sociol- thus feel intense loneliness while in the midst of a busy ogists observe that individuals become alienated when work environment. When living in town, his feelings of alienation confronted him daily, since his ac- tivities did not reflect his true feelings and desires. Some become withdrawn and lethargic; others may react with hostility and violence; still others may be- 1897-1967 come disoriented, rejecting traditional values and behav- American humanist psychologist who developed a personality theory that emphasized individuality.
Remember that the Latin root for blood is hemo; none of the other answer options incorporate that root lady era 100mg visa womens health trick 5 special report diet. The rates in the other answer options are more akin to pulse rates or blood pressures than to average respirations per minute buy lady era 100 mg lowest price pregnancy urine. Gaseous exchange in lungs m Which of the following statements about the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity is not true? Left lung F The vocal folds change position by the movement of the cartilage known as c. These sacs are the smallest parts of the lungs, so it makes sense that molecular exchange would take place here. Note that the question asks you to choose from the list provided, not from the entire structure of the body. Chapter 9 Fueling the Functions: The Digestive System In This Chapter Getting down and dirty with digestion basics Examining the mouth Spending time in the stomach Passing through the intestines and other organs for enzyme digestion t’s time to feed your hunger for knowledge about how nutrients fuel the whole package Ithat is the human body. In this chapter, we help you swallow the basics about getting food into the system and digest the details about how nutrients move into the rest of the body. You also get plenty of practice following the nutritional trail from first bite to final elimination. Before jumping into a discussion on the alimentary tract, we need to review some basic terms. Ingestion: Taking in food Digestion: Changing the composition of food — splitting large molecules into smaller ones — to make it usable by the cells Deglutition: Swallowing, or moving food from the mouth to the stomach Absorption: Occurs when digested food moves through the intestinal wall and into the blood Egestion: Eliminating waste materials or undigested foods at the lower end of the digestive tract; also known as defecation The alimentary tract develops early on in a growing embryo. The primitive gut, or archen- teron, develops from the endoderm (inner germinal layer) during the third week after concep- tion, a stage during which the embryo is known as a gastrula. At the anterior end (head end), the oral cavity, nasal passages, and salivary glands develop from a small depression called a stomodaeum in the ectoderm (outer germinal layer). The anal and urogenital structures develop at the opposite, or posterior, end from a depression in the ectoderm called the proctodaeum. In other words, the digestive tract develops from an endodermal tube with ectoderm at each end.