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The drawing for anaphase I should show the tetrads moving to the top and bottom of the cell along the spindles and the cytoplasm slowly beginning to divide buy imuran 50mg with amex muscle relaxant suppository. Chapter 14 Carrying Life Forward: The Female Reproductive System In This Chapter Mapping out the female reproductive parts and what they do Understanding meiosis as the process that makes eggs Explaining embryology Nursing a fetus into a baby Following the process of growth and aging in women en may have quite a few hard-working parts in their reproductive systems 50mg imuran with mastercard spasms sphincter of oddi, but women Mare the ones truly responsible for survival of the species (biologically speaking, anyway). The female body prepares for reproduction every month for most of a woman’s adult life, producing an ovum and then measuring out delicate levels of hormones to prepare for nurturing a developing embryo. When a fertilized ovum fails to show up, the body hits the biological reset button and sloughs off the uterine lining before building it up all over again for next month’s reproductive roulette. But that’s nothing compared to what the female body does when a fertilized egg actually settles in for a nine-month stay. Strap yourselves in for a tour of the incredible female baby-making machinery — practice questions included. Identifying the Female Reproductive Parts and Their Functions First and foremost in the female reproductive repertoire are the two ovaries, which usually take a turn every other month to produce a single ovum. Roughly the size and shape of large unshelled almonds, the female gonads lie on either side of the uterus, below and slightly behind the Fallopian tubes (also called the uterine tubes). Each ovary has a stroma (body) of connective tissue surrounded by a dense fibrous connective tissue called the tunica albuginea (literally “white covering”); yes, that’s the same name as the tissue surrounding the testes. In fact, the ovaries in a female and the testes in a male are homologous, meaning that they share similar origins. External to the tunica albuginea is a layer of cuboidal cells known as the germinal epithelium. During growth of the ovary in a female fetus prior to birth, the germinal epithelium dips into the body of the ovary in various places. Over time, a mass of epithelial cells called primordial follicles, or primary follicles, becomes separated from the main body of the ovary. The ovaries of a young girl contain from 100,000 to 400,000 of these follicles, most of them present at birth. Usually, only one follicle matures to become a Graafian follicle (twins, triplets, or even more fetuses result if more than one follicle matures to the point of releas- ing an ovum). One cell of this mass, the oocyte (produced by oogenesis, or meiosis), becomes the ovum while the remaining cells surround the ovum as part of the cumulus oophorus and others line the fluid-filled follicular cavity as the membrana granulosa.
Developmental models are more descriptive buy discount imuran 50mg line muscle relaxant 303, whereas decision-making models examine the predictors and precursors to this behaviour generic imuran 50mg free shipping gastrointestinal spasms. Developmental models Developmental models emphasize contraception use as involving a series of stages. Therefore, they describe the transition through the diﬀerent stages but do not attempt to analyse the cognitions that may promote this transition. Lindemann’s three-stage theory Lindemann (1977) developed the three-stage theory of contraception use, which suggests that the likelihood of an individual using contraception increases as they progress through the three stages: 1 Natural stage: at this stage intercourse is relatively unplanned, and the individual does not regard themselves as sexual. It suggests that contraception use is more likely to occur at a stage when the individual believes that sexual activity is ‘right for them’. This process involves the following four stages: 1 Falling in love: this provides a rationale for sex. Decision-making models Decision-making models examine the psychological factors that predict and are the precursors to contraception use. There are several diﬀerent decision-making models and they vary in their emphasis on individual cognitions (e. Rosenstock 1966; Becker and Rosenstock 1987) and is described in detail in Chapter 2. They added the following variables: s self-esteem; s interpersonal skills; s knowledge about sex and contraception; s attitudes to sex and contraception; s previous sexual, contraceptive and pregnancy experiences; s peer norms; s relationship status; and s substance use prior to sex. Therefore, although this model still examines cognitions, it includes measures of the individuals’ cognitions about their social world. The theory of reasoned action This theory was developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) and is described in detail in Chapter 2. It therefore represents an attempt to add the social context to individual cognitive variables and consequently addresses the problem of interaction. In addition, research by Werner and Middlestadt (1979) reported correlations between attitudes to contraception and subjective norms and actual use of oral contraception. Sexual arousal refers to how aroused an individual is at the time of making a decision about contraception. Herold and McNamee’s (1982) model This model is made up of the following variables: (1) parental and peer group norms for acceptance of premarital intercourse; (2) number of lifetime sexual partners; (3) guilt about intercourse and attitudes to contraception; (4) involvement with current partner; (5) partner’s inﬂuence to use contraception; and (6) frequency of intercourse.
Psychiatric Home Nursing Care ● 355 Possible Etiologies (“related to”) Alterations in mental status Inability to engage in satisfying personal relationships Unaccepted social values Unaccepted social behavior Inadequate personal resources Immature interests Alterations in physical appearance Altered state of wellness Deﬁning Characteristics (“evidenced by”) Expresses feelings of aloneness imposed by others Expresses feelings of rejection Developmentally inappropriate interests Inability to meet expectations of others Insecurity in public Absence of supportive signiﬁcant other(s) Projects hostility Withdrawn; uncommunicative Seeks to be alone Preoccupation with own thoughts Sad discount imuran 50mg visa spasms right side of body, dull affect Goals/Objectives Short-term Goal Client will verbalize willingness to be involved with others generic 50mg imuran muscle relaxant reversals. Long-term Goal Client will participate in interactions with others at level of abil- ity or desire. Be with the client to offer support during activities that may be frightening or difﬁcult for him or her. Most individuals keep the same style of relationship development that they had in the past. Help the client identify present relationships that are satisfying and activities that he or she considers interesting. Only the cli- ent knows what he or she truly likes, and these personal pref- erences will facilitate success in reversing social isolation. Risk Factors Caregiver not developmentally ready for caregiver role Inadequate physical environment for providing care Unpredictable illness course or instability in the care receiver’s health Psychological or cognitive problems in care receiver Presence of abuse or violence Past history of poor relationship between caregiver and care receiver Marginal caregiver’s coping patterns Lack of respite and recreation for caregiver Addiction or codependency Caregiver’s competing role commitments Illness severity of the care receiver Duration of caregiving required Family/caregiver isolation Goals/Objectives Short-term Goal Caregivers will verbalize understanding of ways to facilitate the caregiver role. Long-term Goal Caregivers will demonstrate effective problem-solving skills and develop adaptive coping mechanisms to regain equilibrium. Ensure that caregivers are aware of available community sup- port systems from which they can seek assistance when re- quired. Examples include respite care services, day treatment centers, and adult day-care centers. Caregivers require relief from the pressures and strain of providing 24-hour care for their loved one. Studies have shown that abuse arises out of caregiving situations that place overwhelming stress on the caregivers. Release of these emotions can serve to prevent psychopathol- ogy, such as depression or psychophysiological disorders, from occurring. Encourage participation in support groups composed of members with similar life situations. American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities—(800) 424-3688 c. Alzheimer’s Association—(800) 272-3900 Hearing others who are experiencing the same problems discuss ways in which they have coped may help the caregiver adopt more adaptive strategies.