Body cells and mitosis: When body cells multiply they do so by producing identical new cells with 46 chromosomes discount advair diskus 100 mcg on-line asthma treatment india. Sex cells and meiosis: When sex cells are formed either male or female the pairs of chromosomes do not multiply but 4 simply separate so that each of the new cells formed contains only 23 chromosomes not 46 as in the body cells discount advair diskus 500mcg on line asthma treatment vest. However, during fortification when the egg and sperm unite, the fertilized ovum receives 23 chromosomes from each sex cell half of these from the male and half from the female and thus will contain 46 chromosomes which again arrange them selves in pairs in the nucleus. For example, a child who inherits gene A from its father and also gene A from its mother would be homozygous, where as a child who inherits gene A from its father and gene B from its mother would be heterozygous. Dominant and recessive genes: A dominant gene will always show itself if it is present but a recessive gene will only show itself if there is no dominant one, that is if both genes are recessive. In the same way if a child receives from its parents genes B and O it will belong to group B only if it receives gene O from both its parents will it belong to group O. Every individual contains alcohol soluble antigens in body tissues and on the red cells, whether secretor or non-secretor, but secretors, in addition to this, possess the water soluble (glycoprotein) form of antigen, which appears in most body fluids. Individual who are homozygous for se (sese) do not secrete H,A, or B antigens regardless of the presence of H,A or B genes. The Se gene does not affect the formation of A,B or H antigens on the red cells or in hematopoietic tissue, which are alcohol soluble and which are not present in body secretions. What was the reason for the failure of attempted intra and inter species blood transfusions (relate this with the discovery of blood group by Karl Landsteiner). The immunogenicity of a substance (relative ability of a substance to stimulate, the production of antibodies when introduced in to a subject lacking the substance) is influenced by a number of characteristics: Foreignness: The substance should present, at least in part, a configuration that is unfamiliar to the organism. The greater the degree the antigenic determinant is recognized as non- self by an individual’s immune system, the more antigenic it is. The larger the molecule, the greater is its likelihood of possessing unfamiliar antigenic determinant on its surface, and hence the better the molecule functions as an antigen. Molecules with a molecular weight of less than 5000 fail to act as antigen, with 14,000 are poor antigens unless conjugated with adjuvant and with 40,000 or more are good antigens. Structural stability: Structural stability is essential characteristic; structurally instable molecules are poor antigens, eg. Structural complexity: The more complex an antigen is, the more effective it will be complex proteins are better antigens than large repeating polymers such as lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acid, which are relatively poor antigens.
Epinephrine (Racemic) Post-extubation stridor/croup: Use 1:1000 epinephrine(racemic 2 purchase 250 mcg advair diskus with visa asthmatic bronchitis z pack. Higher doses may be required if administered through a ventilator due to loss of drug in the circuit advair diskus 250mcg discount asthma symptoms stomach pain. Consider supplemental steroids at times of stress if patient has received long-term or frequent bursts of steroid therapy. Prolonged weakness may occur when corticosteroids are used concurrently with non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. With continuous infusions measure blood glucose q1h initially, adjust dose as required based on blood glucose measurements. Higher doses may be required if administered through a ventilator due to loss of drug in the circuit. Give in water or juice, do mix with fruit juices with high potassium content such as orange juice. Consider supplemental steroids at times of stress if patient has received long-term or frequent bursts of steroid therapy. Prolonged weakness may occur when corticosteroids are used concurrently with non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. Extrapyramidal reactions occur more commonly in children and may be treated with diphenhydramine. Use with caution in non-ventilated patients due to potential for respiratory depression. To prevent withdrawal, avoid abrupt cessation following high doses or long duration of therapy (> 5 days). Improving the treatment of pain at McMaster Children’s Hospital Morphine is the preferred oral opiate for the treatment of acute pain Morphine has important effectiveness and safety advantages and is preferred over codeine (which historically had been the most commonly used oral opiate at McMaster Children’s Hospital). Codeine is a weak opiate analgesic with minimal intrinsic analgesic activity; it must first be metabolized to morphine which provides most of the analgesic effect. Up to 10% of the population does not effectively metabolize codeine to morphine, resulting in poor pain control. To avoid the unpredictably variable analgesia and potential for toxicity, a simpler approach is to use morphine.
Spreading the fingers or toes apart is also abduction generic advair diskus 100 mcg without prescription asthmatic bronchitis 3 month, while bringing the fingers or toes together is adduction buy 250mcg advair diskus asthma symptoms heart palpitations. For the thumb, abduction is the anterior movement that brings the thumb to a 90° perpendicular position, pointing straight out from the palm. Abduction and adduction movements are seen at condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket joints (see Figure 9. Circumduction Circumduction is the movement of a body region in a circular manner, in which one end of the body region being moved stays relatively stationary while the other end describes a circle. This type of motion is found at biaxial condyloid and saddle joints, and at multiaxial ball-and-sockets joints (see Figure 9. Rotation Rotation can occur within the vertebral column, at a pivot joint, or at a ball-and-socket joint. Rotation of the neck or body is the twisting movement produced by the summation of the small rotational movements available between adjacent vertebrae. For example, at the atlantoaxial joint, the first cervical (C1) vertebra (atlas) rotates around the dens, the upward projection from the second cervical (C2) vertebra (axis). This joint allows for the radius to rotate along its length during pronation and supination movements of the forearm. Here, the humerus and femur rotate around their long axis, which moves the anterior surface of the arm or thigh either toward or away from the midline of the body. Movement that brings the anterior surface of the limb toward the midline of the body is called medial (internal) rotation. Conversely, rotation of the limb so that the anterior surface moves away from the midline is lateral (external) rotation (see Figure 9. Be sure to distinguish medial and lateral rotation, which can only occur at the multiaxial shoulder and hip joints, from circumduction, which can occur at either biaxial or multiaxial joints. When the palm of the hand faces backward, the forearm is in the pronated position, and the radius and ulna form an X-shape. Pronation is the motion that moves the forearm from the supinated (anatomical) position to the pronated (palm backward) position. This motion is produced by rotation of the radius at the proximal radioulnar joint, accompanied by movement of the radius at the distal radioulnar joint.
The classic example is the inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase by malonate and other dicarboxylic acids cheap 500mcg advair diskus mastercard asthmatic bronchitis quote. Succinate dehydrogenase is a member of the group of enzymes catalyzing the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle cheap advair diskus 500mcg amex asthma symptoms vs bronchitis symptoms. Succinate dehydrogenase is inhibited by malonate, which resembles succinate in having two ionized carboxyl groups. So, sulfa drugs act as competitive inhibitor and occupy the active site of some bacterial enzyme catalyzing this reaction. When this reaction is affected, it blocks the folic acid biosynthesis which is essential for the growth of micro organisms, ultimately results in the death of the micro organisms. Thus, many sulfa drugs act as antibiotics + Enzyme Substrate Enzyme - substrate complex + Inhibitor Products Enzyme - inhibitor complex Fig. Non competitive inhibition in contrast to competitive inhibition cannot be overcome by increasing substrate concentration. For example various heavy metal ions such as Ag2+, Hg2+, Pb2+ inhibit the activity of a variety of enzymes. The irreversible inhibitor dissociates very slowly from its target enzyme because it becomes very tightly bound to its active site, thus inactivating the enzyme molecule. Alkylating agents such as iodoacetamide, irreversibly inhibit the catalytic activity of some enzymes by modifying cysteine and other side chains. Organo phosphorous compounds such as diisopropyl phosphofouridate are potential irreversible inhibitors of enzymes that have active seryl residues at their catalytic sites. According to Michaelis Menton theory a) only a single substrate is involved b) the concentration of substrate is much greater than that of enzyme c) an intermediate enzyme substrate complex is formed d) all the above 3. The reciprocal form of M-M equation was considered by a) Lineweaver - Burk b) Fischer c) Koshland d) Dixon 4. While deriving Michaelis Menton equation it should be considered that the concentration of _________ is much greater than that of the _________ in the system.
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